Instruction For Students Who Are Deaf Or Hard Of Hearing
who are deaf experience special challenges in learning
to read and write.
to read and write is part of the language acquisition process,
and many of the difficulties deaf students experience are related
to their lack of a strong language base (either English or ASL).
students may lack some of the background knowledge that hearing
students bring to reading.
students' lack of exposure to spoken language makes teaching
traditional sound-letter correspondence difficult, if not impossible.
those deaf students whose first language is signing, learning
to read and write in English constitutes learning a second language
with a different grammar, lexicon, and syntax.
need special methods to teach literacy to students who
should provide students with background knowledge regarding
culture and content, as well as language aspects such as grammar,
use of idioms and vocabulary development.
spite of the difficulties mentioned above, there has been some
success for the use of cued speech to teach traditional phonemic
(sound-letter correspondence) methods of reading to this population,
and this is not necessarily dependent on usable hearing.
should address basic fluency, development of advanced writing
skills and reading comprehension.
fluency is acquired within social contexts in which students
are motivated to communicate and relate to others.
provides students who are deaf with opportunities to enter the
world of literature and enjoy videos, TV with captioning, and
other forms of entertainment with their hearing peers. It allows
them to access information through all types of media. In addition,
strong literacy skills allow Deaf and Hard of Hearing adults
to compete in the job market.
to a wide range of written materials in "print-rich physical
of written, finger-spelled, and signed language, and the relationship
between the three.
to experiment with reading and writing in a risk-free and supportive
Methods for teaching literacy to students who are deaf include:
TV and video at home help expose children to lots of written
English, supporting natural literacy development.
the classroom, captioning allows the teacher to focus on broad
textual concepts in a more directed instructional environment.
video, multimedia, and on-screen captioning are all being used
increasingly to teach students who are deaf.
of these methods include:
ability to individualize lessons to the needs and preferences
of diverse students
combination of text and video is highly motivational and reinforces
the context for literacy learning
technology makes literacy more accessible and more comfortable
signing in the videos and computer applications is of excellent