The following programs represent some of the most recent information
available for dealing with disproportionality. Although some are
research-based and others are promising practices, we are not suggesting
that these programs will work for every situation. Nor do we claim
that this is an exhaustive list of effective models or instructional
practices. We do suggest, however, that careful consideration be
given to the factors involved in individual situations and offer
these models and promising practices as possible solutions.
Assessment Systems Software (EBASS)
Assessment Model (PAM)
Promoted through Arts, Reading, and Knowledge (SPARK)
Assistance Teams (TAT)
appropriate pedagogy is a theoretical education framework that
attempts to integrate the culture of different racial and ethnic
groups into the overall academic program. The model is based on
the theory that cultural context has a significant impact on learning.
The major tenets of culturally appropriate pedagogy can also be
found in the literature under other names, such as culturally responsible
pedagogy, culturally relevant pedagogy, and culturally responsive
pedagogy. Each of these theories is born from the idea that a child
can have a richer educational experience if the curriculum includes
multiple cultures and represents multiple perspectives.
researchers have advanced theories regarding culturally appropriate
pedagogy. Huber and Parscal (1990) posited that in a truly culturally
responsive model, the curriculum, instructional methodology, and
pedagogy arise from teachers' working knowledge in the following
areas: identifying cultures, understanding how culture and context
affect learning, and being cognizant of the presence and power of
individual and home cultures. Hollins (1990) identified a culturally
sensitive model that incorporates prior knowledge as a characteristic
of successful urban school programs. This model uses culturally
and socially acquired prior knowledge as an intermediary for integrating
new information more efficiently. Closely related to these ideas
are the fundamentals of multicultural education. Ideally, multicultural
education reflects the social realities of both macro and micro
cultures. It incorporates concepts such as cultural diversity, human
and civil rights, racial and gender equity, and alternative life
choices (Banks, 1986; Colnick & Chinn, 1986). Further, a culturally
appropriate pedagogy presumes a constructivist philosophy of education.
This theory purports that a learner constructs knowledge on the
basis of an active interaction between new information and the learner's
prior knowledge and experience. Teaching in a culturally appropriate
manner employs the student's experience as a conduit for knowledge.
This approach also presumes that these experiences facilitate learning
and are integral components of the learning process.
of culturally appropriate pedagogy:
A Culturally Relevant Lesson for African-American Students
Science Education: Myths, Legends, and Moon Phases