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Models and Classroom Instruction

  • Class-Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is based on many validated instructional procedures such as cooperative learning and peer tutoring. It incorporates features that enable schoolwide application for diverse environments. It rewards the individual performance of both the tutor and the tutee, motivating peers to help each other and keeping them engagedin the learning process. Also, alternating tutor-tutee roles and changing partners prevents boredom and keeps students interacting with others (Klinger and Vaughn).

  • Cooperative Learning involves placing students in small groups to work on tasks collaboratively. Tasks are typically short-term (usually to be completed within a single class period) with a common outcome that requires the participation of every member of the group. The most effective cooperative learning techniques should be highly structured, e.g., with defined roles for each group member.

  • Direct Instruction is a highly structured program that tests and retests what children are learning, always corrects them when they err, and tries to leave nothing to chance. It groups children according to ability, but tries to ensure all children learn the basics. Direct instruction almost died out in the late 1980's, when the California school board removed it from the approved state curriculum in favor of the then-fashionable whole language and whole math which place a higher premium on building student self-esteem than on answering the question correctly. However, advocates of direct instruction say self-esteem takes care of itself, since children feel encouraged as they realize they are capable of acquiring basic skills. Teachers who employ direct instruction report that it helps greatly with student discipline, since they are less likely to misbehave as enjoy the challenges the system provides.
  • Effective Use of Time was designed by Jane Stalling (1980) to increase academic engagement through the increased use of active teaching behaviors.

  • The Instructional Conversations model was intended to increase students' language use during reading instruction, and was expected to positively impact students' knowledge of story structure and ability to elaborate on stories read and discussed.

  • Strategy Feedback is instruction based upon a pretest students take. Teachers are then taught to offer students feedback that addresses their pretest errors and statements in class.

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