and Strategies for Positive Behavior:
School-Wide Programs & Strategies:
Class-wide or School-wide
Peer tutoring is an organized learning experience in which one student
serves as the teacher or tutor, and the other student is the learner
or tutee. This approach to tutoring provides students with an opportunity
to use their knowledge in a meaningful, social fashion. Peer tutors
reinforce their own learning process by reviewing and reformulating
their knowledge. Tutees receive the opportunity for skill development
in a non-threatening context. Both tutors and tutees gain self-confidence,
the tutor by seeing self-competence in his or her ability to help
someone and the tutee by receiving positive reinforcement from peers.
All students with some level of responsibility can be given the
opportunity to be tutors. Guidelines for pairing tutors and tutees
are fairly broad and will likely depend on the material being reviewed
and the format of the activity. Peer tutoring can be implemented
on an individual basis (one tutor and tutee pair), class-wide, or
tutoring is most effective with drill and practice activities rather
than with the introduction of new information. With this in mind,
the following are some ideas for implementing peer tutoring:
reading books together, sight word practice (i.e., flashcards),
writing a story together, completing reading comprehension tasks
together, discussing assigned reading, etc.
practice math flash cards, solve word problems together, serialization
tasks (tasks which involve a series of steps), etc.
a little creativity on the part of both teachers and students, games
and activities can be adapted to learning tasks for tutors and tutees.
& Support Information
In order to have a successful peer-tutoring program tutors need
to be trained. Basing a tutor-training program on the following
method has been shown to produce effective peer-tutors:
verbal feedback: Teach your tutors the importance of positive
verbal feedback. Prompt students to come up with a list of standard
statements that are positively reinforcing. They also need to
be taught how much positive feedback to provide. Teach tutors
to give praise after every third or fourth correct response and
after particularly difficult problems.
feedback: Teach tutors how to respond when an incorrect answer
is given. When an incorrect answer is given, the tutor should
promptly give and explain the correct answer without being critical,
and then give the tutee an opportunity to repeat the correct answer.
by teachers: Model these behaviors for the tutors-in-training.
Give correct and incorrect examples of how to provide positive
and corrective feedback.
between teacher and tutors: Role- play the tutoring process
with each tutor, as both the tutor and tutee.
between students: This is identical to the role-playing between
teacher and tutors except that, in this step, the teacher observes
and coaches tutors.
& Additional Resources
Brophy, J. (1996). Working with shy or withdrawn students. ERIC
E. (1974). Peer tutoring: A cooperative learning experience.
Tucson: Arizona. Center for Educational Research and Development,
University of Arizona. ED108 747.
A, & Riessman, F. (1993). Peer-tutoring: Toward a new model.
ERIC Digest ED362506.
J. (1993). Peer and cross-age tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79,
W.L., Heron, T.E., Ellis, D.E., & Cooke, N.L. (1986). Teaching
first grade peer tutors to use verbal praise on an intermittent
schedule. Education and Treatment of Children, 9, 5-15.
E.S. (1978). Cross-age, multicultural peer tutoring in an elementary
resource room. ED153 419.
Sheets: Positive Ways of Intervening with Challenging Behavior.
Peer Tutoring. Available at http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolpehavior/tip_sheets/peertutor.htm