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Reading Instruction for Students with Disabilities

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Commercial Packages
Early Intervention in Reading

  • Distributed by Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)
    Established in 1989

  • Contact Information
    Barbara Taylor
    Early Intervention in Reading Program
    1517 Goodrich Avenue
    St. Paul, MN 55105
    Phone: (651) 695-1578
    Fax: (651) 698-9405
    E-mail: bmtaylor@mr.net
    Web site: http://www.eireading.com

  • Student Population Information
    Age/grade levels of students:
    Applicability to students with disabilities: EIR is implemented in urban, suburban, and rural schools. It has been used extensively with second language learners, showing good results with Hmong students. There is no data for students with disabilities.

  • Setting
    Classroom program or School-wide program: Either

  • Synopsis of Program
    • Daily, 20-minute small group supplemental reading program taught by the classroom teacher to a group of five to seven readers who have displayed difficulty in reading.
    • Kindergarten program focuses on children's enjoyment of literature, discussion of stories related to their lives, creative dramatics, and development of phonemic segmentation.
    • For grades one and two, a three-day cycle of activities includes repeated reading of a story, working with words/phonics instruction, phonemic awareness training, coaching for comprehension, guided sentence writing to enhance phonemic awareness and understanding of the alphabetic principle, coaching on the use of word recognition strategies to foster independence, and one-on-one reading practice.
    • For grades three and four, a five-day cycle of activities includes repeated reading, decoding multi-syllabic words, coaching for comprehension, and writing to enhance comprehension. Forth and fifth graders also serve as reading buddies to first and second grade EIR students once a week.

  • Training/Support
    • Start-Up Training
      The nine month teacher training must start in the Fall and continue through the Spring. The teachers should meet for two hours once a month to review the program in large and small groups. There are two types of training offered:
      • A traditional, face-to-face approach with an introductory workshop and follow-up sessions.
      • A non-traditional approach utilizing the Internet for follow-up sessions. The internet-based training program includes interactive, multi-media presentations.
    • Continued Professional Development
      • Monthly staff development sessions, conference calls, and site visits are provided by EIR trainers to help teachers refine the coaching they provide to students.
      • EIR Trainers observe the implementation of the various components of the program and remains in contact with the local on-site coordinator.
      • On-site visits by an EIR trainer for observations in the classrooms can be arranged at an additional cost.

  • Supporting Research
    • Conducted by Developer
      • In a study involving over 100 schools over eight years, 80 percent of first graders at risk of reading failure who participated in the EIR Program are reading independently at the end of first grade, and reading on grade level in the second grade.
      • In a four-year study in Massachusetts, students receiving EIR instruction outperformed students who did not receive EIR instruction on all seven measures developed for the study (letter name identification, letter sound identification, segmenting sounds, blending sounds, dictation skills, production of additional words, and word reading skills).
      • EIR is used in suburban, rural, and inner-city schools, although results in inner-city schools have not been as dramatic.
    • External Research
      • See References.

  • Considerations
    • EIR recommends that schools have the latest hardware and software capabilities, such as an ethernet connection because of the numerous video clip demonstrations.
    • EIR procedure are available on-line, and many of the training materials can be downloaded from the Internet.
    • EIR has been approved for inclusion in the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory's Catalog of School Reform Models.

  • Cost Information
    • $500-$1,200 per participating teacher for the first year, depending on the number of teachers in a cohort and the number of on-site visits arranged with the EIR trainer. If a district takes over EIR training, costs to train new cohorts of teachers decrease in year two and three.
    • Approximately seven copies of 36-40 titles at the appropriate EIR levels will be needed. Using the EIR recommended books, a set per teacher per grade is as follows (with a 20% discount):
      • Kindergarten - $183.50
      • Grade 1 - $425.24 (summary version)
      • Grade 1 - $824.20 (no summary version)
      • Grade 2 - $785.18
      • Grade 3 - $475.04
      • Grade 4 - $503.70

  • Resources and References
    • Research by Developers
      • Taylor, B.M. (1995). The Early Intervention in Reading Program: Results and Issues Spanning Six Years. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Reading Association, San Francisco.
      • Taylor, B.M. (1998a). 1997-1998 K-2 Literacy Initiative Evaluation: Executive Summary. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
      • Taylor, B.M. (1998b). Grades 3 / 4 1997-1998 EIR Results in Moundsview. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, unpublished.
      • Taylor, B.M. (1999). EIR 1996-1997 EIR Kindergarten Results. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, unpublished.
      • Taylor, B.M., Frye, B.J., Short, R.A., & Shearer, B. (1992). Classroom teachers prevent reading failure among low-achieving first-grade students. The Reading Teacher, (45) 592-597.
      • Taylor, B.M., Hanson, B.E., Justice-Swanson, K., and Watts, S.M. (1997). Helping struggling readers' linking small-group intervention with cross-age tutoring. The Reading Teacher, 51(3), 196-208.
    • External Research
      • Chard, D. (1997). Final Evaluation Report. AY 1996-1997 Early Reading Intervention Project of Springfield Public Schools, Springfield, Massachusetts. Austin: University of Texas.

  • Sample Sites
    • East Elementary School
      722 Mill Bay Road
      Kodiak, AK 99615
      Contact: Delany Smith
      Demographics: rural; 43% minority; 25% receiving free lunch

    • Sunnyside Elementary School
      2070 County Road H
      New Brighton, MN 55112-1586
      Contact: Ceil Critchley
      (651) 784-5226
      Demographics: suburban; 10-15% minority, 37% receiving free lunch

    • If you send an email description of your school, EIR will send schools that participate in their program to contact that are similar in terms of types of setting (urban, suburban, rural), minority enrollment, and percent of students on subsidized lunch. Contact info@eireading.com

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Early Intervention in Reading
Reading Recovery
Institute of Multi-Sensory Education
Lexia Reading Software
Language Tune-Up Kit



1000 Thomas Jefferson St., NW
Suite 400
Washington, DC 20007
Tel: (202) 944-5300
TTY: 1-877-334-3499
Fax: (202) 944-5454