Students engage and monitor themselves in the learning process,
consciously making decisions and using skills and tactics that
will help them make connections and learn more efficiently.
An arrangement of students for instructional purposes. Grouping
formats may include pairs, small groups, whole class, and multiple
grouping formats. One adult teaching a single child would not
be considered a grouping format.
Procedure deemed to be effective in enhancing student reading.
Model includes direct instruction components and strategy instruction
components and includes used attention to sequencing, drill-repetition-practice,
segmentation and synthesis of information, directed response and
questioning, control of task difficulty, technology, the teacher
systematically modeling problem-solving steps, making use of small
interactive groups, and strategy cueing.
This strategy is often referred to as the Master Teaching model
or Systematic Instruction because it emphasizes the very well
organized, fast-paced, and motivating materials used by effective
teachers. Teachers usually divide classes into groups and conduct
well-sequenced and focused lessons, conducive to student response
and teacher feedback. Expectations are clear and students learn
specific subskills needed to accomplish certain tasks, such as
letter sounds. It is also modeled after Distar, which also includes
using organized and specific materials with clear procedures for
classroom management and assessment.
An aid that is structured to help student organize and build upon
thoughts, concepts, events, and main ideas. Examples include timelines,
concept or story maps (storymap.doc), story webs, charts, and
graphs. A graphic organizer is usually left blank so that student
can write his or her own ideas on them. Graphic aids are typically
aids that are already complete with someone else's ideas, such
as a completed map of the world.
Therapeutic (eclectic) Ð those interventions not directed toward
specific academic domains, remedial, direct instruction, and cognitive
Individual's awareness of and ability to monitor, adjust, and
regulate his/her cognitive actions in regard to learning.
Instruction (mnemoni mnemonicreading.doc)
This improves students' recall of factual items such as vocabulary
or key concepts by linking those words or concepts with specific
retrieval (memory) techniques, such as the use of acronyms, representational
imagery, and associations with key words. In situations where
students have some prior knowledge of a subject, students may
also be taught to generate reasons why new facts are useful, engaging
them in active learning.
Instruction makes use of a specific combination of grouping formats,
e.g., paring and small groups.
Personalized instruction between one student and the teacher.
Understanding writing conventions of the language and correct
and incorrect spellings.
Mediated Instructional Practices
A grouping instructional strategy that enables the student to
serve in the role of tutor to younger or same-aged peers.
See Student Pairing.
Linked to phonemic awareness, phonological awareness is the ability
to hear and manipulate small sounds in words (phonemes), and understand
that those sounds can create new words. Only slightly more complex
is phonemic awareness, which allows the student to actually create
those new words through the realization that phonemes correspond
to letters in the alphabet, which create language.
This is the understanding of rules used to create language, such
as long and short vowel sounds. That is, the understanding of
the grapheme-phoneme conversion rules and the exceptions to these
rules (Siegel, 1993).
A student serves as tutor and tutee with an assigned partner.
A reform in education that calls for the reduction of pull-out
programs for students with disabilities and the inclusion of these
students in the general education classroom.
Students with disabilities frequently assume the role of tutee;
the tutors assisting them are typically students who are older
or who are more proficient readers. However, reverse-role tutoring
occurs when students with disabilities assume the role of tutor
for a younger or less proficient reader.
This term often replaces "cognitive strategy," but actually implies
more flexible and fluid teaching than cognitive strategy instruction.
Scaffolding encourages the building of ideas and relationships
through discussion, graphic organizers, or concept diagrams that
enable students to work through difficult tasks or concepts and
build on those ideas in order to gradually learn more independently.
A metaphor that is commonly used to describe scaffolding is that
of an adjustable and temporary support that can be removed when
it is no longer necessary.
Understanding the meaning of words.
Instructional technique involving breaking down a task, fading
of prompts or cues, matching the difficulty level of the task
to the student, sequencing short activities, and/or using step
by step prompts.
Students are placed in groups that typically range from 3 to 10
students. Groups may be characterized with respect to (1) whether
the teacher is leading the group of the students are working independently
of the teacher and (2) whether the students in the group are similar
or different ability levels with respect to reading. When the
teacher is teaching the small group or directly guiding their
activity, the group is referred to as teacher-led. When students
in a small group are working together toward a common goal, e.g.
to improve reading skill Ð and are doing so without the direct
supervision of the teacher, the group is referred to as non-teacher-led,
Often, students are unaware of how they learn. Strategy instruction
models focus on helping students understand the processes they
may already use while learning, and on teaching new tactics that
may enhance the learning process. The teacher explains why certain
processes and strategies are used, models the strategies, and
creates structured practice exercises enabling students to better
control the cognitive choices they make while learning. For example,
students improve reading comprehension by actively using self-monitoring,
paraphrasing, and decoding techniques.
Students working together in-groups of two. Pairs may be characterized
with respect to (1) the role of the students in the pair and (2)
the relative ages of the two students. Students working in pairs
may take on one of four roles: tutor, tutee, reciprocal tutor-tutee
(students take turns being tutor and tutee), or cooperative partner
(students work together cooperatively, mutually offering corrections
and feedback). When students engage in unidirectional or reciprocal
tutoring with the same-grade peers (who are typically of similar
age), this is referred to as peer tutoring. When a student tutors
a student in a lower grade (who is typically younger), This is
referred to as cross age tutoring.