Reading Instruction for Students with Disabilities
and Classroom Instruction
instruction follows an organized sequence of events that allow
students to learn prerequisite skills and move on to performing
tasks independently. The following is an example of a general
sequence used in the classroom:
helps students understand the objectives of a lesson and identifies
the expectations for performance.
reviews necessary skills.
presents information, gives examples, and demonstrates concepts.
assesses for understanding and misconceptions by posing questions
participate in group instruction and/or independent practice.
They demonstrate new skills and adopt the new concepts on their
assesses performance and gives immediate and delayed feedback
in form of discussion, quizzes, etc.
provides continued practice and review.
This specific model uses a teacher created advanced graphic
organizer to guide students through five strategies for reading:
predicted ideas and background knowledge based on text structure
for text structure
This model combines a number of strategies and is used with expository
texts, such as newspaper articles, essays, and social studies
texts. Students engage in three "passes" through expository
Survey Pass: Students read through titles and introductory
paragraphs, review relationships to adjacent chapters, read
major subtitles, look at illustrations and captions, read
the summary paragraph, and paraphrase information acquired
in order to become familiar with the text.
Size Up Pass:
Without fully reading it, students gain specific information
and facts in the passage. Students read each question at the
end of the chapter. If they can answer it, they check where
that information was found and then move through the rest
of the chapter to find clues, transform clues in to questions,
look at surrounding text to find answers to those questions,
and paraphrase the answers.
Sort Out Pass: Students read and answer each question
at the end of the chapter. If they can answer the question,
they check it. If not, they look for the answer in the text.
This allows students to test themselves.
Strategy Instruction Techniques:
Grammars: This intervention is helpful when teaching narrative
text. It is a generic outline of the structure of a story, including
story setting, characters, goal or problem, actions, reactions
of characters, and outcome. This technique helps students understand
the way stories are organized, which in turn helps them understand
what they read.
This intervention is based on the premise that students with
disabilities do not efficiently reflect on their own thinking
and do not evaluate how well a reading task is being carried
out. Comprehension monitoring techniques allow students to become
active readers, rather than inactive readers, by generating
questions, identifying interesting words, and cross-referencing
inconsistencies. Students without disabilities can also be inactive
readers, and may benefit from these strategy interventions,
Imagery: Such interventions include activities that allow
the reader to visualize what he or she has read or what they
are about to read, and are based on the dual-coding theory,
asserting that learning may be either verbal or visual. The
verbal image strategy requires students to answer comprehension
questions one paragraph at a time, after talking to themselves
aloud about what they read. In the visual strategy situation,
students are asked to close their eyes and make a mental movie
about the completed paragraph before answering the questions.
Guided by Narrative Text Structure: Students identify principal
parts of the story and use a guide for organization while reading.
Students use story outlines, story mapping, and visual imagery.
Combined with direct
instruction and opportunities for guided and independent
practice, this integrated strategy improves comprehension of
specific texts and shows some generalization to other reading
Organization: Students use a five-step process to re-organize
text including sentence sorting, checking sentences, placing
sentences in proper order within paragraphs, and preparing to
tell the story.
Students write main and supporting ideas onto maps and take
notes on maps during tape-recorded presentations of passages.
As students progress, the map becomes a coherent outline of
the text. These are often called semantic
Interrogation of Texts: Students reason through the text
by asking "why does this make sense?" after each sentence. Students
engage in self-questioning while reading the passages and when
prompted by the teachers. Study results indicated that this
method might produce better results when coupled with intense
direct coaching, prompting, and guided practice.
Students use a two-part, nine-step summary skills strategy,
with a Summary Writing Guide used to visually organize elements
during the process. This is coupled with carefully executed
direct teaching approaches. Results show improvement in reading
comprehension and summarization skills.
Summarization with Self-monitoring Comprehension Training:
This method has shown positive results, possibly because the
complexity of expository texts requires the use of the self-monitoring
techniques in addition to the summarization technique.
Mnemonics: Using mnemonic
devices is particularly helpful when working with students
to improve recall of vocabulary and lists of facts. The use
of acronyms, representational imagery, and associations with
key words can improve the recall and retrieval items with which
students have little prior knowledge. In situations where students
do have some prior knowledge of a subject, they may also be
taught to generate reasons why new facts are useful, engaging
them in active
Reading: This involves allowing students to re-read texts